Medical Research MCS & MCAS

Anyone trying to tell you MCS isn’t real? Let them read all these papers before making up their mind.

Lists, Articles, etc.

International Scientific Declaration on EHS & MCS, Brussels, 2015. Following the 5th Paris Appeal Congress that took place on May 18, 2015, at the Royal Academy of Medicine, Brussels, Belgium.

James Madison University MCS Research Team

Chemical Injury Information Network

Dr Walter Crinnion ND

Chemical ‘soup’ clouds connection between toxins and poor health, Scientific American 23 November 2012.

Maternal Chemical and Drug Intolerances: Potential Risk Factors for Autism and Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) Lynne P. Heilbrun, MPH; Raymond F. Palmer, PhD; Carlos R. Jaen, MD; Melissa D. Svoboda, MD, Claudia S. Miller, MD, and Jimmy Perkins, PhD; Journal of the American Board Family Med. 2015;28(4):461-470.

The Methylation Cycle

Dr Martin L Pall

The Role of the Brain and Mast Cells in MCS by Gunnar Heuser, MD, PhD, FACP

The Mast Cell Disease Society

William J. Meggs, MD, PHD may have relevant articles/publications available.

Online Articles by Dr Rea a thoracic and cardiovascular surgeon with a strong passion for the environmental aspects of health and disease and founder and director of the Environmental Health Center (EHC-D)

TDEX – The Endocrine Disruption Exchange

Canadian Human Rights Commission, The Medical Perspective on Environmental Sensitivities by Margaret E. Sears

Invisible Disabilities Association Why Go Fragrance Free?

Daily Mail (UK) Why air fresheners and scented candles can wreck your health: They could cause cancerous DNA mutations and asthma

National Geographic March 5, 2015 Chemical Exposure Linked to Billions in Health Care Costs

Occipital Lobe Meningioma in a Patient with Multiple Chemical Sensitivity
Moorhead JF, et al
American Journal of Industrial Medicine, 37(4):443‐446, April 2000

Chemical Sensitivity and Fatigue Syndromes from Hypoxia/Hypercapnia
Ross PM.
Medical Hypotheses, 54(5):734-738, May 2000

Deep Subcortical (including limbic) Hypermetabolism in Patients with Chemical Intolerance: Human PET Studies
Heuser G, et al
Annals of The New York Academy of Sciences, 933:319‐322, March 2001

Organochlorine Pesticides and Chlorinated Hydrocarbon Solvents in the Blood of Chemically Sensitive
Patients [corrected]. A Statistical Comparison with Therapeutic Medication and Natural Hormones.
Rea WJ, et al
Journal of Environmental Biology, 22(3):163‐169, July 2001

Solomon GM, Weiss PM. Chemical contaminants in breast milk: time trends and regional variability. Environ Health Perspect. 2002;110:A339–A347.[PMC free article]

Genetic Susceptibility to Adverse Effects of Drugs and Environmental Toxicants. The Role of the CYP Family of Enzymes
Ingelman‐Sunberg M.
Mutation Research, 482(1‐2):11‐19, October 2001
Pupil Light Reaction of Multiple Chemical Sensitivity Patients to Extremely Low Concentrations of
Miyata M, et al
Neuro‐Ophthalmology Japan, 19(2):155‐161, 2002
Mechanisms of Multiple Chemical Sensitivity
Winder C.
Toxicology Letters, 128 (1‐3):85‐97, March 10 2002

Multiple Chemical Sensitivity – An Elevation of Enzyme Induction Thresholds
Mellish CE.
Journal of Nutritional & Environmental Medicine, 12(4):337‐342, Dec. 2002

Markers of Genetic Susceptibility in Human Environmental Hygiene and Toxicology: The Role of Selected CYP, NAT and GST genes
Their R, et al
International Journal of Hygiene and Environmental Health, 206(3):149‐171, June 2003

A Metabolic Basis for Fibromyalgia and its Related Disroders: The Possible Role of Resistance to Thyroid
Garrison RL, et al
Medical Hypotheses, 61(2):182‐189, August 2003
Reproducibility of Immunological Test Used to Asses Multiple Chemical Sensitivity Syndrome
Hoover DR, et al
Clinical and Diagnostic Laboratory Immunology, 10(6):1029‐1036, November 2003
The Plasma Cysteine/Sulphate Ratio: A Possible Clinical Biomarker
Moss M.
Journal of Nutritional & Environmental Medicine, 13(4): 215‐229, December 2003
Identification of Responsible Volatile Chemicals that Induce Hypersensitive Reactions to Multiple Chemical Sensitivity Patients Shinohara N Journal of Exposure Science & Environmental Epidemiology, 14(1):84‐91, Jan. 2004

Effect of Exposure to Volatile Organic Compounds on Plasma Levels of Neuropeptides, Nerve Growth Factor and Histamine in Patients with Self‐Reported Multiple Chemical Sensitivity

Kimata H. International Journal of Hygiene and Environmental Health, 207(2):159‐163, February 2004

Mycotoxins and Antifungal Drug Interactions: Implications in the Treatment of Illnesses Due to Indoor
Chronic Toxigenic Mold Exposures
Anyanwu EC
Scientific World Journal, 4:167‐177, March 12 2004
LongTerm Exposure to Low Levels of Formaldehyde Increases the Number of Tyrosine Hydroxylase‐Immunopositive Periglomerular Cells in Mouse Main Olfactory Bulb

Hayashi H, et al Brain Research, 1007(1‐2):192‐197, May 2004

The Endoplasmic Reticulum in Xenobiotic Toxicity
Cribb AE, et al
Drug Metabolism Review, 37(3):405‐442, 2

Chemical Exposures: Genes and Sensitivity
By Angela Spivey
Environmental Health Perspective, 113(3):A157, March 2005

Exposure of Eyes to Perfume: A Double‐Blind, Placebo‐Controlled Experiment
Elbering J et al
Indoor Air, 16(4): 276‐281, August 2006

Drug Intolerance in Patients with Idiopathic Environmental Intolerance Syndrome
Niedoszytko M, et al
The International Journal of Clinical Practice, 60(10):1327‐1329, October 2006

The Role of the Brain and Mast Cells in MCS
Heuser G.
Townsend Letter, October 2006

Relevance of the Deletion Polymorphisms of the Glutathione S‐transferases GSTT1 and GSTM1 in
Pharmacology and Toxicology.
Bolt HM,
Current Drug Metabolism, 7(6):613‐628, Aug 2006
Increased Release of Histamine in Patients with Respiratory Symptoms Related to Perfume.
Elbering J, et al
Experimental Allergy, 37(11):1676‐1680, 2007

Immune Effects of Respiratory Exposure to Fragrance Chemicals
Ezendam J et al
RIVM Reports,  2007

A Cross‐Sectional Study of Self- Reported Chemical Related Sensitivity is Associated with Gene Variants of Drug‐Metabolizing Enzymes

Schnakenberg E, et al.
Environmental Health, 6:6, 2007

Effect of Long‐Term Exposure to Low‐Level Toluene on Airway Inflammatory Response in Mice
Fujimaki H, et al
Toxicology Letters, 168(2):132‐139, January 30 2007

The Effects of Evaporating Essential Oils on Indoor Air Quality
Su HJ, et al
Atmospheric Environment, 41(6):1230‐1236, February 2007

Volatile Organic Compounds Contribute to Airway Hyperresponsiveness
Jang AS, et al
The Korean Journal of Internal Medicine, 22(1):8‐12, March 2007

Odor Processing in Multiple Chemical Sensitivity
Hilbert L, et al
Human Brain Mapping, 28(3):172‐183, March 2007
Quality of Life and Capsaicin Sensitivity in Patients with Airway Symptoms Induced by Chemicals and Scents: A Longitudinal Study
Ternesten‐Hasseus E, et al
Environmental Health Perspective, 115(3):425‐429, March 2007

Gene-Environment Interactions in Environmental Lung Diseases Kleeberger SR, et al Novartis Foundation Symposium, 293:168‐178, 2008

Coagulation Cascade and Fibrinolysis in Patients with Multiple‐Drug Allergy Syndrome
Asero R, et al
Annals of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology, 100(1):44‐48, January 2008

Sequence Variations in Subjects with Self‐Reported Multiple Chemical Sensitivity (sMCS): A Case‐Control Study

Wiesmuller GA, et al. Journal of Toxicology and Environmental Health, 71(11‐12):786‐794, January 2008

The Health Effects of Nonindustrial Indoor Air Pollution
Bernstein J, et al
The Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology, 121(3):585‐591, March 2008

Mechanisms of Increased Airway Sensitivity to Occupational Chemicals and Odors
Millqvist E.
Current Opinion in Allergy and Clinical Immunology, 8(2):135‐139, April 2008

Detection of Low‐Level Environmental Chemcal Allergy by a Long‐Term Sensitization Method

Fukuyama T, et al Toxicology Letters, 180(1):1‐8, July 30 2008

Anaesthesia for Patients with Idiopathic Environmental Intolerance and Chronic Fatigue Syndrome
Fisher MM, et al
British Journal of Anaesthesia, 101(4):486‐491, October 2008

Breathtaking TRP Channels: TRPA1 and TRPV1 in Airway Chemosensation and Reflex Control Bessac BF, et al Physiology, 23(6):360‐370, December 2008

Cerebral Imaging and Olfactory Disorders: A Review
Plallly J, et al
B‐ENT, 5 Suppl 13:61‐69, 2009

Phenotypes of Individuals Affected by Airborne Chemicals in the General Population
Berg ND, et al
International Archives of Occupational and Environmental Health, 82(4):509‐517, March 2009

Relation of PON1 and CYP1A1 Genetic Polymorphisms to Clinical Findings in a Cross‐Sectional Study of a
Greek Rural Population Professionally Exposed to Pesticides
Tsatsakis AM, et al
Toxicology Letters, 186(1):66‐72, April 10 2009,

Neuroregulation of Human Nasal Mucosa
Baraniuk JN, et al
Annals of The New York Academy of Sciences, 1170:604‐609, July 2009

Glyphosate‐Based Herbicides are Toxic and Endocrine Disrupters in Human Cell Lines
Gasnier C, et al
Toxicology, 262(3):184‐191, August 21 2009

The Chemical Defensive System in the Pathobiology of Idiopathic Environment‐ Associated Diseases
Korkina L, et al
Current Drug Metabolism, 10(8): 914‐931, October 2009

Brain Dysfunction in Multiple Chemical Sensitivity
Orriols R, et al
Journal of Neurological Science, 287(1‐2):72‐8, December 15 2009

How Can We Cure NO/ONOO ‐ Cycle Diseases?
Pall ML
Townsend Letter For Doctors and Patients, 319‐320:75‐86, 2010

Functional Impairment in Chronic Fatigue Syndrome, Fibromyalgia, and Multiple Chemical Sensitivity
Lavergne RM, et al
Canadian Family Physician, 52(2):e57‐e65, February 2010

Xenobiotic, Bile Acid and Cholesterol Transporters: Function and Regulation
Klaassen CD, et al
Pharmacological Reivews, 62(1):1‐96, March 2010
Genetic Susceptibility Factors for Multiple Chemical Sensitivity Revisited
Berg ND, et al.
International Journal of Hygiene and Environmental Health, 213(2): 131‐139, March 2010

Factors Associated with Prospective Development of Environmental Annoyance
Eek F, et al
Journal of Psychosomatic Research, 69(1):9‐15, July 2010

Idiopathic Environmental Intolerance (IEI): From Molecular Epidemiology to Molecular Medicine
De Luca C, et al
Indian Journal of Experimental Biology, 48(7):625‐635, July 2010

Multiple Chemical Sensitivity is a Response to Chemicals Acting as Toxicants via Excessive NMDA Activity
Pall ML
Journal of Psychosomatic Research, 69(3): 327‐328, September 2010

Human PON1, a Biomarker of Risk of Disease and Exposure
Furlong CE, et al
Chemico‐Biological Interactions, 187(1‐3):355‐361, September 6 2010

Biological Definition of Multiple Chemical Sensitivity from Redox State and Cytokine Profiling and not from Polymorphisms of Xenobiotic‐Metabolizing Enzymes

De Luca C, et al
Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology, 248(3): 285‐292, November 1 2010

Debating the Legitimacy of a Contested Environmental Illness: A Case Study of Multiple Chemical
Sensitivities (MCS)
Phillips T.
Sociology of Health & Illness, 32(7):1026‐1040, November 2010

A Novel Methodology to Evaluate Health Impacts Caused by VOC Exposures Using Real‐Time VOC and
Holter Moniters
Mizukoshi A, et al
International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, 7(12):4127‐4138,
December 2010

Increased Capsaicin‐Induced Secondary Hyperalgesia in Patients with Multiple Chemical Sensitivity.
Holst H, et al
The Clinical Journal of Pain, 27(2):156‐162, February  2011

NonAllergic Cutaneous Reactions in Airborne Chemical Sensitivity – A Population Based Study
Berg ND, et al
International Journal of Hygiene and Environmental Health, February 14 2011 (Epub ahead of print)

Isolation and lack of Access in Multiple Chemical Sensitivity: A Qualitative Study
Gibson PR, et al
Nursing and Health Sciences, 13(3): 232‐237, 2011

Effect of Exposure to Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCs) on Airway Inflammatory Response in Mice
Wang F, et al
The Journal of Toxicological Sciences, 37(4): 739‐748, 2012

Women with Multiple Chemical Sensitivity Have Increased Harm Avoidance and Reduced 5‐HT1A Receptor
Binding Potential in the Anterior Cingulate and Amygdala
Hillert L, et al
Plos One, 8(1): e54781, 2013

Evaluation of Genetic Polymorphism in Patients with Multiple Chemical Sensitivity
Cui X, et al
Plos One, 8(8): e73708, 2013

Xenobiotic Sensor – and Metabolism‐Related Gene Variants in Environmental Sensitivity Related Illnesses: A
Survey on the Italian Population
Caccamo D, et al
Oxidative Medicine and Cellular Longevity, Epub July 7 2013

Multiple Chemical Sensitivity: On the Scent of Central Sensitization
Tran M.T., et al
International Journal of Hygiene and Environmental Health, 216(2): 202‐210, 2013

Caress S.M., Steinemann A.C.  Prevalence of Fragrance Sensitivity in the American Population.  Journal of Environmental Health 71(7): 46‐50, 2009.

Caress S.M., Steinemann A.C.  National Prevalence of Asthma and Chemical Hypersensitivity: An Examination of Potential Overlap. Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine 47(5): 518‐522, 2005.

Caress S.M., Steinemann A.C.  A National Population Study of the Prevalence of Multiple Chemical Sensitivity. Archives of Environmental Health 59(6): 300‐305, 2004.  Abstract

Caress S.M., Steinemann A.C. Prevalence of Multiple Chemical Sensitivities: A Population-Based Study in the Southeastern United States. American Journal of Public Health 94(5): 746‐747, 2004

Caress S.M., Steinemann A.C.  A Review of a Two‐Phase Population Study of Multiple Chemical Sensitivities.
Environmental Health Perspectives 111(12): 1490‐1497, 2003.

Caress S.M., Steinemann A.C., Waddick W. Symptomatology and Etiology of Multiple Chemical Sensitivities in the Southeastern United States. Archives of Environmental Health 57(5): 429‐436, 2002.

Kreutzer R, Neutra R.R, Lashuay N. Prevalence of people reporting sensitivities to chemicals in a population- based survey. American Journal of Epidemiology. 150(1):1‐12, 1999

from Chemical Sensitivity Foundation Research Bibliography
Selected Bibliography of Studies and Articles on Chemical Sensitivity Published in Peer-Reviewed Journals
March 2014 Version

  • Abdullah, L., Evans, J.E., Montague, H., Reed, J.M., Moser, A., Crynen, G., Gonzalez, A., Zakirova, Z., Ross, I., Mullan, C., Mullan, M., Ait-Ghezala, G., Crawford, F. “Chronic Elevation of Phosphocholine Containing Lipids in Mice Exposed to Gulf War Agents Pyridostigmine Bromide and Permethrin.” Neurotoxicology and Teratology 40 (November-December, 2013):74-78.
  • Antelman, S.M. “Time-Dependent Sensitization in Animals: A Possible Model of Multiple Chemical Sensitivity in Humans.” Toxicology and Industrial Health 10, nos. 4-5 (July-October 1994):335-42.
  • Arnold Liamosas, P.A., Arrizabalaga Clement, P., Bonet Agusti, M., de la Fuente Brull, X. “Multiple Chemical Sensitivity in Sick-Building Syndrome.” Medicina Clinica (Barcelona) 126, no. 20 (May 27, 2006):774-78.
  • Association of Occupational and Environmental Clinics. “Advancing the Understanding of Multiple Chemical Sensitivity.” Toxicology and Industrial Health 8, no. 4 (1992):1.
  • Ashford, N., Heinzow, B., Lüütjen, K., Marouli, C., Møølhave, L., Möönch, B., Papadopoulos, S., Rest, K., Rosdahl, D., Siskos, P., Velonakis, E., et al. “Chemical Sensitivity in Selected European Countries: An Exploratory Study.” A Report to the European Commission. Ergonomia, 1995.
  • ATSDR (Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry). “Proceedings of the Conference on Low-Level Exposure to Chemicals and Neurobiologic Sensitivity.” Toxicology and Industrial Health 10, nos. 4-5 (1994):25.
  • Baines, C.J., McKeown-Eyssen, G.E., Riley, N., Cole, D.E., Marshall, L., Loescher, B., Jazmaji, V. “Case-Control Study of Multiple Chemical Sensitivity, Comparing Haematology, Biochemistry, Vitamins and Serum Volatile Organic Compound Measures.” Occupational Medicine 54, no. 6 (September 2004):408-18.
  • Bartha, L., Baumzweiger, W., Buscher, D., Callender, M., Dahl, K., Davidoff, A., et al. “Multiple Chemical Sensitivity: A 1999 Consensus.” Archives of Environmental Health 54, no. 3 (1999):147-49.
  • Bascom, R. “Multiple Chemical Sensitivity: A Respiratory Disorder.” Toxicology and Industrial Health 8, no. 4 (1991):221-28.Bascom, R., Meggs, W., Frampton, M., Hudnell, K., Killburn, K., Kobal, G., Medinsky,M., Rea, W. “Neurogenic Inflammation: With Additional Discussion of Central and Perceptual Integration of Nonneurogenic Inflammation.” Environmental Health Perspectives 105, Suppl. 2 (1997):531-37.
  • Bell, I.R. “Clinically Relevant EEG Studies and Psychophysiological Findings: Possible Neural Mechanisms for Multiple Chemical Sensitivity.” Toxicology 111 (1996):101-17.
  • Bell, I.R. “White Paper: Neuropsychiatric Aspects of Sensitivity to Low-Level Chemicals: A Neural Sensitization Model.” Toxicology and Industrial Health 10, nos. 4-5 (July-October 1994):277-312.
  • Bell, I.R., Baldwin, C.M., Schwartz, G.E. “Sensitization Studies in Chemically Intolerant Individuals: Implications for Individual Difference Research.” Annals of the New York Academy of Science 453 (2001):38-47.
  • Bell, I., Baldwin, C., Fernandez, M., Schwartz, G. “Neural Sensitization Model for Multiple Chemical Sensitivity: Overview of Theory and Empirical Evidence.” Toxicology and Industrial Health 15, nos. 3-4 (1999):295-304.
  • Bell, I., Rossi, J., Gilbert, M., Kobal, G., Morrow, L., Newlin, D., Sorg, B., Wood, R. “Testing the Neural Sensitization and Kindling Hypothesis for Illness from Low Levels of Environmental Chemicals.” Environmental Health Perspectives 105, Suppl. 2 (1997):539-47.
  • Berg, N.D., Linneberg, A., Dirksen, A., Elberling, J. “Phenotypes of Individuals Affected by Airborne Chemicals in the General Population.” International Archives of Occupational and Environmental Health (August 28, 2008).
  • Buchwald, D., Garrity, D. “Comparison of Patients with Chronic Fatigue Syndrome, Fibromyalgia, and Multiple Chemical Sensitivities.” Archives of Internal Medicine 154 (1994): 2049-2053.
  • Callender, T.J., Morrow, L., Submaranium, K. “Evaluation of Chronic Neurological Sequelae After Acute Pesticide Poisoning Using Brain SPECT Scans.” Journal of Toxicology and Environmental Health 41 (1994):275-84.
  • Calley, C.S., Kraut, M.A., Spence, J.S., Briggs, R.W., Haley, R.W., Hart, J. Jr. “The Neuroanatomic Correlates of Semantic Memory Deficits in Patients with Gulf War Illnesses: A Pilot Study.” Brain Imaging Behavior 4, nos. 3-4 (December 2010):248-55.
  • Caress, S.M., Steinemann, A.C. “A National Population Study of the Prevalence of Multiple Chemical Sensitivity.” Archives of Environmental Health 59, no. 6 (June 2004): 300-305.
  • Caress, S.M., Steinemann, A.C. “National Prevalence of Asthma and Chemical Hypersensitivity: An Examination of Potential Overlap.” Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine 47, no. 5 (May 2005): 518-22.
  • Caress, S.M., Steinemann, A.C. “Prevalence of Fragrance Sensitivity in the American Population.” Journal of Environmental Health 71, no. 7 (2009):46-50.
  • Caress, S.M., Steinemann, A.C. “A Review of a Two-Phase Population Study of Multiple Chemical Sensitivities.” Environmental Health Perspectives 111, no. 12 (2003):1490-1497.
  • Caress, S.M., Steinemann, A.C., Waddick, C. “Symptomatology and Etiology of Multiple Chemical Sensitivities in the Southeastern United States.” Archives of Environmental Health 57, no. 5 (2002):429-36.
  • Cone, J., Sult, T. “Acquired Intolerance to Solvents Following Pesticide/Solvent Exposure in a Building: A New Group of Workers at Risk for Multiple Chemical Sensitivity.” Toxicology and Industrial Health 8, no. 4 (1992):29-39.
  • Costa, L., Li, W., Richter, R., Shih, D., Lusis, A., Furlong, C. “The Role of Paraoxonase (PON1) in the Detoxication of Organophosphates and Its Human Polymorphism.” Chemico-Biological Interactions 119-120 (1999):429-38.
  • Cowan, J., Sinton, C.M., Varley, A.W., Wians, F.H., Haley, R.W., Munford, R.S. “Gene Therapy to Prevent Organophosphate Intoxication.” Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology 173, no. 1 (May 15, 2001):1-6.
  • Cui, X., Lu, X., Hiura, M., Oda, M., Miyazaki, W., et al. “Evaluation of Genetic Polymorphisms in Patients with Multiple Chemical Sensitivity.” PLoS ONE 8, no. 8 (August 13, 2013):e73708.
  • Cullen, M., Pace, P., Redlich, C. “The Experience of the Yale Occupational and Environmental Medicine Clinics with Multiple Chemical Sensitivities, 1986-1991.” Toxicology and Industrial Health 8 (1992):15-19.
  • Cullen, M.R. “The Worker with Multiple Chemical Sensitivities: An Overview.” Occupational Medicine 2 (1987):655-68.
  • Dantoft, T.M., Elberling, J., Brix, S., Szecsi, P.B., Vesterhauge, S., Skovbjerg, S. “An Elevated Pro-Inflammatory Cytokine Profile in Multiple Chemical Sensitivity.” Psychoneuroendocrinology 40 (February 2014):140-50.
  • Davidoff, A., Fogarty, L. “Psychogenic Origins of Multiple Chemical Sensitivity Syndrome: A Critical Review of the Research Literature.” Archives of Environmental Health 49, no. 5 (1994):316-25.
  • Davidoff, A., Keyl, P. “Symptoms and Health Status in Individuals with Multiple Chemical Sensitivities Syndrome from Four Reported Sensitizing Exposures and a General Population Comparison Group.” Archives of Environmental Health 51, no. 3 (1996):201-13.
  • Davidoff, A.L., Meggs, W. “Development of Multiple Chemical Sensitivities in Laborers After Acute Gasoline Fume Exposure in an Underground Tunneling Operation.” Archives of Environmental Health 53, no.3 (1998):183-89.
  • Doty, R., Deems, D., Frye, R., Pelberg, R., Shapiro, A. “Olfactory Sensitivity, Nasal Resistance, and Autonomic Function in Patients with Multiple Chemical Sensitivities.” Archives of Otolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery 114 (1988):1422-1427.
  • Elberling, J., Dirksen, A., Johansen, J.D., Mosbech, H. “The Capsaicin Cough Reflex in Eczema Patients with Respiratory Symptoms Elicited by Perfume.” Contact Dermatitis 54, no. 3 (March 2006):158-64.
  • Fernandez, M., Bell, I., Schwartz, G. “EEG Sensitization During Chemical Exposure in Women With and Without Chemical Sensitivity of Unknown Etiology.” Toxicology and Industrial Health 15, nos. 3-4 (1999):305-12.
  • Fiedler, N., Kipen, H., Natelson, B., Ottenweller, J. “Chemical Sensitivities and the Gulf War: Department of Veterans Affairs Research Center in Basic and Clinical Science Studies of Environmental Hazards.” Regulatory Toxicology and Pharmacology 24 (1996):S129-S138.
  • Fincher, E.F., Chang, T.S., Harrell, E.H., Kettkecut, M.C., Rea, W.J., Johnson, A.R., Hickey, H.C., Simon, T.R. “Comparison of Single Photon Computed Tomography Findings in Cases of Healthy Adults and Solvent-Exposed Adults.” American Journal of Industrial Medicine 31 (1997):4-14.
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Mast Cell Activation Syndrome (often the cause of MCS)

The Mast Cell Disease Society

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Theoharides, Theoharis C., and Julia M. Stewart. “Genitourinary Mast Cells and Survival.” Translational Andrology and Urology 4.5 (2015): 579–586. PMC. Web. 23 Apr. 2018.

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Theoharides TC, Petra AI, Stewart JM, et al. High serum corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) and bone marrow mast cell CRH receptor expression in a mastocytosis patient.J Allergy Clin Immunol 2014;134:1197-9

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Pedotti R, De Voss JJ, Steinman L, Galli SJ. Involvement of both ‘allergic’ and ‘autoimmune’ mechanisms in EAE, MS and other autoimmune diseases. Trends Immunol. 2003;24:479–484.

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